This enzyme is the first to be encountered by food when it enters the mouth, and it begins the process of starch digestion that then continues in the gut.
Economic Explanations of Increased Obesity
People usually have two copies of each gene, but in some regions of our DNA there can be variability in the number of copies a person carries, which is known as copy number variation. The number of copies of AMY1 can be highly variable between people, and it is believed that higher numbers of copies of the salivary amylase gene have evolved in response to a shift towards diets containing more starch since prehistoric times.
They found that people who carried a low number of copies of the salivary amylase gene were at greater risk of obesity.
The chance of being obese for people with less than four copies of the AMY1 gene was approximately eight times higher than in those with more than nine copies of this gene. The researchers estimated that with every additional copy of the salivary amylase gene there was approximately a 20 per cent decrease in the odds of becoming obese.
Professor Philippe Froguel, Chair in Genomic Medicine in the School of Public Health at Imperial College London, and one of the lead authors on the study, said: "I think this is an important discovery because it suggests that how we digest starch and how the end products from the digestion of complex carbohydrates behave in the gut could be important factors in the risk of obesity.
Future research is needed to understand whether or not altering the digestion of starchy food might improve someone's ability to lose weight, or prevent a person from becoming obese. We are also interested in whether there is a link between this genetic variation and people's risk of other metabolic disorders such as diabetes, as people with a low number of copies of the salivary amylase gene may also be glucose intolerant.
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Dr Mario Falchi, also from Imperial's School of Public Health and first author of the study, said: "Previous genetic studies investigating obesity have tended to identify variations in genes that act in the brain and often result in differences in appetite, whereas our finding is related to how the body physically handles digestion of carbohydrates.
We are now starting to develop a clearer picture of a combination of genetic factors affecting psychological and metabolic processes that contribute to people's chances of becoming obese.
Carbohydrate digestion and obesity strongly linked -- ScienceDaily
This should ultimately help us to find better ways of tackling obesity. Dr Julia El-Sayed Moustafa, another lead author from Imperial's School of Public Health, said: "Previous studies have found rare genetic variations causing extreme forms of obesity, but because they occur in only a small number of people, they explained very little of the differences in body weight we see in the population. On the other hand, research on more common genetic variations that increase risk of obesity in the general population have so far generally found only a modest effect on obesity risk.
Participation in youth sport is recommended for increasing physical activity, but little research exists on whether sport can promote energy balance or prevent obesity.
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Through studying the environment at youth sport settings we hope to gain a better understanding of the role environments play in preventing obesity; specifically concession stands, vending machines, promotions and advertisements, and non-food locations within the venue. In addition, we hope to better understand obesity trends in sport by assessing energy expenditure versus energy intake in youth. Toben Nelson — Every Day video.
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Video Series. But could this approach to losing weight be more beneficial to some people than others? When we eat, an enzyme in saliva called salivary amylase kick-starts digestion by breaking down some of the starch found in carbohydrates into sugars. This enzyme is produced by the gene AMY1. The more copies you have, the more enzyme you produce. One theory is that humans evolved to carry more copies of the gene as our diets shifted towards carbohydrate-rich foods.